Used to aid in the removal of plaque / tartar.
Examples: alumina, hydrated silica, dicalcium phosphate, salt,
pumice, kaolin, bentonite, calcium carbonate (chalk), sodium bicarbonate
(baking soda), calcium pyrophosphate
Active ingredients are those components of toothpaste that have a
direct effect on the teeth or gums. Active ingredients must be
blended in a way that their activity is not lost.
fluoride (sodium monofluorophosphate, stannous fluoride, or sodium
fluoride), xylitol [reduces decay levels and enhances remineralization]
|% is calculated as %w/w, click here
Triclosan, sanguinaria extract, baking soda (when greater than 26%),
zinc citrate trihydrate, polyphenols, stannous fluoride, essential
tartar control agents
tetrasodium pyrophosphate, Gantrez S-70, sodium tri-polyphosphate
enzymes to enhance antibacterial properties of saliva
glucose oxidase, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme
potassium nitrate, strontium chloride, sodium citrate
||Coloring adds pleasant esthetics so that we find toothpaste
Examples: red, green (D&C #5), and blue; titanium dioxide
Also known as soaps, foaming agents, or surfactants. All surfactants
help aid in the removal of compounds that have properties different
from one another like oil and water. The presence of detergents
requires flavoring to mask their dreadful flavor.
Examples: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium lauroyl sarcosinate,
sodium N-lauryl sarcosinate, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, sodium
stearyl fumarate, sodium stearyl lactate, sodium lauryl sulfoacetate
Flavoring is added for obvious reasons. It is also functions to mask
the flavor of the detergent component, especially SLS. Mint flavors,
especially when combined with menthol, contain oils that volatilize
in the warmth of the mouth. The volatilization requires energy,
which is extracted from the tissues of the mouth as heat, thereby
imparting a cooling sensation.
Examples: peppermint, spearmint, cinnamon, wintergreen, and
Humectants retain water and help maintain a consistent paste-like
quality in the toothpaste, preventing a separation of the liquid
and solids in the toothpaste. Humectants in some cases can affect
flavor, coolness and sweetness.
Examples: sorbitol, pentatol, glycerol, glycerin, propylene
glycol, polyethylene glycol, water, xylitol (uncommon, but superior),
PEG 8 (polyoxyethylene glycol esters), PPG (polyoxyethylene ethers)
Thickeners create the texture of toothpaste.
Examples: carrageenan, cellulose gum, xanthan gum, gum arabic,
sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellulose ethers, sodium alginate,
carbopols, silica thickeners, sodium aluminum silicates, clays
||Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms
Examples: sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben
Sweeteners are provided for palatability and acceptance. Most toothpastes
have sorbitol or glycerol/glycerin as humectants which are sweet,
but only about 60% the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar), so other
sweeteners are needed.
Examples: calcium or sodium saccharin (banned in Canada),